Credit by Philippine eagle © Photo by Jomark Francis Velasco on Unsplash
The Monkey-Eating Eagle: An Iconic Bird of Prey in the Philippines
NATURE Philippines

The Monkey-Eating Eagle: An Iconic Bird of Prey in the Philippines

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), also known as the monkey-eating eagle, is one of the largest and most powerful eagles in the world. Endemic to the Philippines, it is a symbol of strength, power, and freedom for the Filipino people. Unfortunately, the Philippine Eagle is also one of the most endangered bird species in the world, with an estimated population of only 400 pairs remaining in the wild. 

The Philippine Eagle is found nowhere else in the world. Its range includes several islands in the Philippines, including Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao, and other nearby islands. The eagle's historical range may have been more extensive, but habitat loss and fragmentation have greatly reduced its distribution.

Today, the largest remaining populations of Philippine Eagles are found on the island of Mindanao, particularly in the Caraga and Davao regions. The Philippine Eagle has a relatively small range compared to other eagle species, with estimates suggesting that its total area of occupancy is less than 20,000 square kilometers.


The Philippine Eagle is found only in the forests of the Philippines, specifically on the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao. They prefer to live in large, undisturbed areas of primary forest, but can also be found in secondary forests and even plantations. Their habitat is threatened by deforestation, mining, and other human activities that destroy the forest.

Keterangan Gambar (© Pemilik Gambar)


The Philippine Eagle is a carnivore, and its diet consists mainly of monkeys, flying squirrels, tree squirrels, and other small mammals. It has also been known to prey on birds, reptiles, and even large rodents. Its hunting style is unique among eagles, as it is able to fly low and fast through the forest canopy, using its strong talons to grab prey off tree branches or out of the air.

Range in blue
Range in blue

The Philippine Eagle is known for its distinctive appearance, with a prominent, curved beak and a spiky crown of feathers on its head. It is also famous for its courtship display, where it performs an aerial dance with its mate, soaring high into the sky and then plummeting back down to the forest floor.

The Philippine Eagle is a solitary bird, except during breeding season when pairs mate for life and raise a single chick every two to three years. The chick remains with its parents for up to two years before becoming independent.

IUCN Status

The Philippine Eagle is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. This means that it faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. The main threats to the species are habitat loss, hunting, and trapping. The Philippine government and conservation groups are working to protect the remaining population and their habitat through law enforcement, habitat restoration, and community education.

Keterangan Gambar (© Pemilik Gambar)

In conclusion, the Philippine Eagle is a majestic and awe-inspiring bird of prey that is, unfortunately, facing the threat of extinction. Its habitat, population, and future survival are all at risk due to human activities. It is up to us to protect this incredible species and ensure that it can continue to soar in the skies above the forests of the Philippines for generations to come.


  1. BirdLife International. (2021). Pithecophaga jefferyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T22696034A179818605.
  2. Brown, R. M., Gonzales, P. C., Kennedy, R. S., & Paguntalan, L. M. (2014). Saving the Philippine Eagle: Developing a sustainable captive breeding program. Journal of Raptor Research, 48(3), 252-259.
  3. Kennedy, R. S., Gonzales, P. C., Dickinson, E. C., Miranda, Jr., H. C., & Fisher, T. H. (2000). A guide to the birds of the Philippines. Oxford University Press.
  4. BirdLife International. (2021). Philippine Eagle conservation in the Philippines. BirdLife International Asia.


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